Guarani & Spanish
The Tupí-Guaraní language Guaraní (code: gug) is the indigenous language of the Americas with the second largest number of speakers. Guaraní was the language of the Jesuit reductions in what is today Paraguay and Lengua General until the late 19th century.
About 6.5 million people speak Guaraní as their first language, mainly in Paraguay, but also in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Uruguay. Many of them do not perceive themselves as 'indigenous'. Many speakers grew up bilingually with Spanish or Portuguese, which they intertwine so naturally with Guaraní in their everyday communication that this form of bilingual competence has been given its own name in Paraguay: Jopará (guar. for 'mixture'). The transitions between Guaraní mbya on the one hand and Spanish on the other are often understood as fluid, and Jopará is probably best understood as a transition zone of different aggregate states of the merging of two linguistic traditions.
Guaraní is the subject of numerous publications, a good overview is provided by
Estigarrabia, Bruno & Justin Pinta (eds.). 2017. Guarani Linguistics in the 21st Century. Leiden: Brill.
In August 2019, we recorded 12 speakers from Asunción using the described methodology. These are urban Guaraní and Spanish from Paraguay.