Agrarian Pasts, Utopian Futures: Food, Nostalgia, and the Power of Dreaming in Old Comedy and the New Southern Food Movement
Lily Kelting studied at the FU Berlin already in 2007 within a summer program of the Columbia University and the FU Berlin and was awarded a DAAD grant within this program. In 2008 she finished her undergraduate studies at the Barnard College of Columbia University with an emphasis on Greek Classics and was graded Summa cum Laude. Her project “Speech and Silence in Sophocles’ Antigone” was advised by Helene Foley and Nancy Worman.
Within the Joint Doctoral Program of the University of California in San Diego and Irvine she researched in the department of Theatre and Drama for her dissertation within the areas of Performance Studies, Food Studies, Classics and American Studies with an emphasis on African-American foodways. In June 2014 she achieved a doctor’s degree with her book project “Agrarian Pasts, Utopian Futures: Food, Nostalgia, and the Power of Dreaming in Old Comedy and the New Southern Food Movement”. She is an associated postdoctoral member of the InterArt Graduate Research Group since January 2015.
This dissertation attempts to answer one very large question: in what political and performative ways do the aesthetics of food function? Throughout this dissertation, I articulate moments when nostalgia (looking backwards to foods of the past) in fact becomes an idealized model for a utopian future. This conflation of looking backward (nostalgia) and looking forward (utopianism) demonstrates the ways in which time is multiple and multi-directional. I argue that this temporal multiplicity marks the use of food in these plays, films, and other media as uniquely performative. I use Frederic Jameson’s The Political Unconscious to connect these theatrical and performative devices with ideological conflicts between democracy and modes of agrarian production in both case studies. In sum, I argue that these performative fantasies of the past-as-future offer an aesthetic solution to ideological conflicts about agrarian government.
I address the relationship between nostalgia and utopian thinking in two case studies: the ancient Greek comedies of Aristophanes and cookbooks from the contemporary American South. In these two examples, nostalgia for food is entangled with utopian rhetoric, and moving back towards an agricultural, pre-democratic government is figured as a utopian turn. This nostalgia often operates as a revisionist history that erases slave labor and scarcity. However, what I call “the utopian turn” also offers both new dramatic possibilities for characters on the Greek comic stage and a more inclusive definition of the South for contemporary chefs and cookbook authors. I argue that in these case studies, one might recoup a kernel of utopian thinking from an otherwise conservative, nostalgic turn to an agricultural past. I work with the theoretical work of Ernst Bloch to discuss both the liberatory and compensatory work done by these utopian fantasies.
Thus, the first half of the dissertation outlines the utopias presented in Aristophanes’ comedies, which paradoxically both look back nostalgically to a pre-democratic, agrarian society and represent that society as full of urban, imported luxury foods. In the second half of the dissertation, using a horizontal approach across popular media, I examine representations of the South from the New Southern Food Movement in which the South’s agrarian past is figured as free from labor, in which southern food is figured as gourmet, luxury food. Ultimately, I conclude that food in performance becomes unstuck in time (moving back to an imagined nostalgic past or forwards towards an imagined utopian future) in order to critique contemporary political crises and create aesthetic solutions that point towards a pleasure-driven future.